Best Java Testing Frameworks for 2024

Top Java Testing Frameworks for automation in 2024

With the evolution of the software development process, robust testing frameworks are becoming a crucial part of the development life cycle. It is also essential for developers to integrate modern testing practices like automation testing to boost the productivity and quality of the apps that are currently being developed.

Java, being one of the most popular programming languages for building enterprise-grade applications, has a plethora of testing frameworks for ensuring the reliability and quality of Java-based applications.

So, with this article, we will take a detailed look at some of the best Java testing frameworks for executing automation testing in 2024. We will also highlight the advantages, features, and use cases of all these frameworks.

Understanding Java Frameworks

Java Testing Frameworks 2024

Java testing frameworks are libraries and tools that provide support for writing and executing tests in Java-based applications. While using these tools, testers can access various features and formalities to facilitate different types of testing. Some of the common examples include functional testing, unit testing, and integration testing.

Since Java is one of the most popular programming languages in the application development industry, testers can easily migrate to these frameworks without going through a steep learning curve.

Top Java Testing Frameworks

Based on the standards of the modern application development industry and the requirements of multiple testers, we have created a list of some of the top Java testing frameworks that will be in the limelight in 2024:

JUnit 5

JUnit is one of the oldest Java testing frameworks with a stable reputation within the Java ecosystem. This tool also represents a significant evolution of the framework module. This tool offers a powerful and flexible testing solution for all Java developers using the modular architecture and support for modern Java features. Let us now understand some of the key features available with JUnit 5:

  • JUnit 5 introduces a revamped set of annotations for test cycle management. It also helps the developers to parameterize the test cases and perform dependency injection.
  • This tool has multiple extension models, allowing developers and testers to enhance test capabilities by integrating 3rd party extensions for features such as parameter resolution, mocking, and custom reporting.
  • JUnit 5 introduces support for dynamic test cases, which enables the generation of tests at runtime. It implements this approach using dynamic conditions or data sets accessible during the execution phase.
  • This tool is designed with platform support in mind, which makes it compatible with various testing environments. Some of the standard integrations include IDEs, continuous integration servers, and build tools.

Conclusively, JUnit 5’s modular and extensible architecture, combined with robust features, makes it a top choice for Java testers looking to write maintainable and concise unit test cases.


TestNG is another popular Java testing framework. It provides versatility and advanced features for the test cases. Some of the typical offerings of TestNG include integration testing, unit testing, and end-to-end testing. While using this framework, developers and testers can access the following features:

  • It provides a rich set of annotations for test grouping, configuration, sequencing, and parallel test execution.
  • TestNG supports the execution of parameterized test cases to run the same test method with different data sets.
  • This tool enables the creation of test suites, allowing developers to organize and execute multiple test classes as a cohesive unit.
  • While using TestNG, the developers can integrate parallel test execution to run multiple test instances on different machines and configurations side by side.


Mockito is another robust mocking framework for Java. This framework is mainly used in conjunction with testing frameworks like TestNG or JUnit for performing unit testing. This tool also simplifies creating and managing mock objects to simulate external dependencies and behavior for more isolated and focused testing infrastructure.

To further boost our understanding, we have mentioned some of the significant features of this framework:

  • It provides a clean and intuitive API for creating mock objects to define behavior, verify method invocations, and stub responses.
  • The annotations of this framework support simplified mode creation and injection in test classes to reduce boilerplate code and enhance readability.
  • The extensions of Mockito help integrate with other testing frameworks and libraries to extend its interoperability and functionality.
  • Using this framework, the developers can create spies. Spies are parallel mocks that delegate core to the real object for selective mocking of methods while retaining the original behavior of others.

Selenium WebDriver

The Selenium WebDriver is one of the most popular frameworks for executing automation testing on web apps. It provides robust API and cross-browser compatibility to create automation test scripts across multiple browsers and platforms.

  • Using Selenium WebDriver, the developers can execute the test cases in the native environment of a web browser without the involvement of a dedicated test engine.
  • It allows the developers to run the test cases across multiple browsers to ensure broad compatibility and consistent behavior across different environments.
  • Selenium WebDriver supports seamless integration with popular Java testing frameworks like TestNG and JUnit for the execution of unit testing and integration testing.
  • Selenium WebDriver communicates with web browsers using the WebDriver protocol, which provides a standardized interface for interacting with browser internals and also controls the behavior programmatically.


Cucumber is a behavior-driven development framework for Java that promotes collaboration between different stakeholders within the company. It implements Gherkin syntax and support for feature files.

  • This tool allows the stakeholders to define feature files using the Gherkin syntax. This approach describes application behavior in steps, scenarios, and expected outcomes.
  • Cucumber maps feature file scenarios and step definitions within Java to enable the implementation of test logic and automated acceptance tests.
  • The testers can seamlessly integrate this framework with other Java testing frameworks like TestNG to execute future files alongside integration testing.
  • Finally, Cucumber natively supports parallel test execution of feature files to ensure fast execution and improve test efficiency.

Best Practices for Using Java Testing Frameworks

Now that we have learned about the best Java testing frameworks for 2024, let us go through some of the best practices that can help the developers and testers utilize the full potential of these frameworks:

Using Test-Driven Development

The testers must write the tests before writing the production code to ensure that the code is testable and meets the specified requirements for the application development project.

Test-driven development also ensures incremental development and verifies that the code is thoroughly tested before the application’s outset.

Creating Clear and Descriptive Tests

Since modern applications consist of thousands of different elements that require thorough testing, the testers must use descriptive test names to convey the intent and expected behavior of the test.

It is also a good practice to break down tests into small, focused units for increasing maintainability and readability.

Finally, it is crucial to include comments or documentation explaining the purpose of complex tests or edge cases.

Using Assertions Judiciously

The testers can use assertions to verify the expected code behavior under test.

They should also use meaningful assertion messages to provide context when a test fails. This practice will help make diagnosing and quickly resolving issues easier before the application rolls out.

Avoiding Test Coupling and Duplication

It is practical to minimize the test dependencies among each other to prevent cascading failures and improve test isolation.

To implement this approach, the testers can refactor the test logic into helper methods or setup methods to reduce duplication and improve the overall maintainability of the automation test scripts.

Understanding the Importance of Documentation and Community Support

All the popular Java testing frameworks have their own official website, which has adequate information in terms of documentation and sample test cases. So, the developers must go through all this information to understand various methods and features available with these frameworks that might be useful depending on their requirements.

Most of the Java testing frameworks discussed in this article are open-source. So, they have vast communities of enthusiastic developers and testers who constantly work to improve the testing experience with these frameworks.

The developers and testers can refer to this community whenever they are stuck with any feature or method of these tools.  

Using Parameterized Tests

Automation testers can use parameterized test cases for running the same test logic with multiple inputs or data sets to further improve the test coverage and accuracy of the testing infrastructure.

Moreover, using parameterized test cases, the testers can reduce code duplication and enable comprehensive testing on different scenarios.

Integrating Cloud Testing

Since it is a crucial process to execute the Java test cases on multiple devices, operating systems, and browsers, the developers can use cloud platforms to access thousands of these test configurations through remote servers.

Cloud platforms also provide access to old devices and legacy browser versions no longer available in the market.

AI-powered test orchestration and execution platforms like LambdaTest integrate parallel testing, artificial intelligence, and comprehensive test activity logs to improve the test coverage, test reporting, and debugging process.

Running the Tests in Isolation

The automation testers must ensure that the test cases are independent of each other and can be run in any order depending on the requirements of the application development project.

They should also avoid relying on shared data or side effects between tests to prevent unintended interactions and improve testing reliability.

Regularly Reviewing and Refactoring the Tests

After the deployment of the application, the developers and testers must periodically review the test code to identify opportunities for refactoring and improvement.

The testers can also refactor test cases to eliminate duplication, improve readability, and maintain alignment with evolving requirements and court changes. Finally, this process also ensures that the new elements in the application infrastructure do not harm the existing ones.

Providing Meaningful Test Reports and Feedback

Finally, the testers must generate detailed test reports with adequate information about test results, failures, and coverage metrics.

Integrating reporting plugins or frameworks like Allure or ExtentReports is also helpful. These frameworks will allow the testers to generate visually appealing and informative test reports. Moreover, cross browser testing platforms like LambdaTest natively integrate videos and screenshots in the test reports to improve readability.

The Bottom Line

In the dynamic world of software development, choosing the proper testing framework is crucial for ensuring the reliability, quality, and maintainability of Java applications. The best Java testing frameworks for 2024 offer a combination of robust features, ease of use, and flexibility for meeting the diverse needs of modern development teams.

So, these frameworks are helpful for developers writing unit test cases, integrating automation testing with web browsers, or practicing behavior-driven development. We advise the testers to explore and experiment with these frameworks to find the framework that best suits their requirements and testing needs.

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Annette Hinshaw

Annette Hinshaw is a retired businesswoman from Adrian Michigan, where she owned a high end furniture retail store for several decades. Annette is keenly interested in architecture and homemaking.

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